Skip top navigation

Resource Bank

The Resource Bank features materials and tools such as Webinars and regional pacing event presentations.

International Radon Brochures

Radon experts from Switzerland, South Tyrol, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and Austria have worked out four brochures for the public (prevention, measurement, mitigation, thermal retroffitting).

The brochures are unique as they combine and concentrate the knowledge and experiences of experts from different (Alpine) countries.

Even though some aspects may be specific to the construction technologies and building characteristics of Alpine countries you may find these brochures helpful for your work, too.

Please feel free to pass on the documents to anyone who might be interested in them.


Healthy House Reference Manual

There is a free Healthy House Reference Manual available (limited to 1 hard copy or a CD or download a copy) at:


Call 1-800-CDC-INFO for more information.


Radium Content of Oil- and Gas-Field Produced Waters in the Northern Appalachian Basin (USA): Summary and Discussion of Data

Radium activity data for waters co-produced with oil and gas in New York and Pennsylvania have been compiled from publicly available sources and are presented together with new data for six wells, including one time series. When available, total dissolved solids (TDS), and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities also were compiled.

Data from the 1990s and earlier are from sandstone and limestone oil/gas reservoirs of Cambrian-Mississippian age; however, the recent data are almost exclusively from the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. The Marcellus Shale represents a vast resource of natural gas the size and significance of which have only recently been recognized. Exploitation of the Marcellus involves hydraulic fracturing of the shale to release tightly held gas. Analyses of the water produced with the gas commonly show elevated levels of salinity and radium.


Fukushima Nuclear Crisis, Radiation Consequences

An interesting publication is released from Japan: “The time variation of dose rate artificially increased by the Fukushima nuclear crisis.”

This is of great interest to everyone anxious to know about the radiation consequences of the incident. To understand the results in perspective, another document "Nuclear radiation and Health Effects” is also attached. This document also provides exposures during Chernobyl accident. Because the units of radiation are in SI units, following conversion Table (may not be exact) but is useful for those of us who are familiar with US units.

Conversions from SI units to US units

Radiation dose (or exposure) rates:

1 µSv/h = 1 µGy/h = 100 µrad/h = 115 µR/h

Normal BG =0 .08 µGy/h = 9.2 µR/h

High Dose rates in Japan = 36 µGy/h = 4140 µR/h

Dose and Exposures

1 Sv is equal to 1 Gy (for gamma radiation)

1 Gy = 100 rad = 115 R

High Exposures in Japan =68 mSv = 68 mGy = 7820 mR


Environmental Radiation Fact Sheet

Health Physics Society
Specialists in Radiation Safety
Linnea E. Wahl, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose mission is excellence in the sci-ence and practice of radiation safety. Formed in 1956, the Society has approximately 5,500 scientists, physicians, en-gineers, lawyers, and other professionals. Activities include encouraging research in radiation science, developing standards, and disseminating radiation safety information.



Role of Vegetation in Enhancing Radon Concentration and Ion Production in the Atmosphere

E.R. Jayaratne, X. Ling, and L. Morawska
International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation,
Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia

The role of ions in the production of atmospheric particles has gained wide interest due to their profound impact on climate. Away from anthropogenic sources, molecules are ionized by alpha radiation from radon exhaled from the ground and cosmic γ radiation from space. These molecular ions quickly form into “cluster ions”, typically smaller than about 1.5 nm. Using our measurements and the published literature, we present evidence to show that cluster ion concentrations in forest areas are consistently higher than outside.Owing to the low range of alpha particles, radon present deep in the ground cannot


Radon Awareness and Household Testing: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Chrystine Kelley, Environmental Protection Specialist, Radon Coordinator, Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Division

Eric Brown, Environmental Data Coordinator, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

During calendar year 2009, a series of questions was added to the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine residents’ awareness and response to the presence of radon gas in household air. The survey participants were asked if they knew what radon was and if their household air had been tested for it. If the house had been tested for radon the survey further asked if the test result was above the remediation action limit of 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) and what their response to a high radon test result was. The 4 pCi/L action limit was set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA recommends that at, or above, this level a radon mitigation system be installed.


Dose Estimation and Radon Action Level Problems Due to Nanosize Radon Progeny

One of the essential parameters influencing of the dose conversion factor is the ratio of unattached shortlived radon progeny. This may differ from the value identified for indoor conditions when considering
special workplaces such as mines. Inevitably, application of the dose conversion factors used in surface
workplaces considerably reduces the reliability of dose estimation in the case of mines.

This paper surveyed the concentration of radon and its short-lived radon progeny and identified the
unattached fraction of short-lived radon progeny. As well equilibrium factor during the month of August
was calculated simultaneously at two extraction faces in a manganese ore mine.

During working hours the average radon concentrations were 220 Bq m3 and 530 Bq m3 at Faces 1
and 2; the average short-lived progeny concentration was 90 Bq m3 and 190 Bq m3, the average
equilibrium factors were 0.46 and 0.36, and the average unattached fractions were 0.21 and 0.17,


Two Error Components Model for Measurement Error: Application to Radon

In this paper, a simple model for analysing variability in radon concentrations in homes is tested. The
approach used here involves two error components, representing additive and multiplicative errors,
together with variation between-houses. We use a Bayesian approach for our analysis and apply this
model to two datasets of repeat radon measurements in homes; one based on 3-month long
measurements for which the original measurements were close to the current UK Radon Action Level
(200 Bq m3), and the other based on 6-month measurement data (from regional and national surveys),
for which the original measurements cover a wide range of radon concentrations, down to very low
levels. The model with two error components provides a better fit to these datasets than does a model
based on solely multiplicative errors.